autism and personality disorder

to summarize the research findings on pd in adults with asd and without intellectual disability, focusing on comorbidity and differential diagnosis. the severity of asd symptoms, intellectual functioning, age at diagnosis and psychiatric comorbidity have been shown to account for heterogeneity in clinical presentation, functioning and outcome[2-4]. the purpose of this review is to summarize the research findings on pd in adults with asd, focusing on comorbidity and differential diagnosis. in particular, 36% of asd patients met the criteria for schizoid pd, 17% for obsessive–compulsive pd and 2% for avoidant and paranoid pd diagnoses. patients with asd scored higher on detachment and stress susceptibility and had a median of four pd compared to two in the control group. in another study, schwartzman et al[56] compared adults with and without asd using the international personality item pool representation of the neo-pi-r (ipip-neo-120) as a trait measure. this study also found medium-sized group differences from the control sample and elevations in 30%-40% of the asd group on scale 8 (schizophrenia).

hyperactivation in spd compared to asd was found in the amygdala and the cerebellum. the major limitations of this study were that diagnosis was based on the patients’ self-reports, and that there was a preponderance of females in the bpd and control samples. the current review provides a literature summary of how personality and pd have been studied in high-functioning adults with asd, focusing on two clinical issues. in most of the studies reviewed, the personality of adults with asd was assessed in order to identify a specific profile differing from that of neurotypical controls. in summary, the overall profile of personality traits and dimensions in asd puts individuals at risk for other psychiatric disorders and lower functioning, even if variability exists. the research included studies published up to april 2020. the current review provides a literature summary of how personality and pd have been studied in high-functioning adults with asd. further studies are needed to explore the relationship between asd and pd, especially on differential diagnosis. bfi: big five inventory; l-sas: liebowitz social anxiety scale; hads: hospital anxiety and depression scale; ipip-neo-120: international personality item pool representation of the neo-pi-r; neo-pi-r: neo personality inventory revised.

we acknowledge that there may be subtle differences in practice between the united kingdom and the united states, but we anticipate the clinical challenges discussed in this editorial are common to all professionals involved in the care of those with asds and aspds. this has been linked with the ventromedial pfc, limbic system, and basal ganglia.16 deficits in either can lead to behaviors that might suggest a lack of empathy or callousness toward others and, consequentially, are antisocial in nature. for the rest of this discussion, we will consider the challenges of diagnosis and management of an aspd in individuals with an asd. in addition, assessing and diagnosing this dual diagnosis is made difficult by the lack of clinical guidance on the assessment of individuals who present with an asd and a pd.

this led to suspicion of a comorbid asd that was supported with screening aids such as autism quotient,27 ritvo autism & asperger diagnostic scale (raads)28 and ados. identification of an asd in an individual with a pd can ensure that psychotherapeutic interventions are contextualized to a person’s communication and social cognition. specifically, it may be difficult to hold the position that an individual can have both an asd and pd, with many behaviors being a product of the combination rather than each alone. this also needs to be supported by evidence-based assessment tools that may inform clinical guidelines for the treatment of difficulties associated with each disorder in the presence of the other. although a diversity of views can be positive, there is a skill in presenting alternative perspectives and interpretations that bring other members of a team to a shared understanding.

autism spectrum disorder (asd) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction, as well as both people with autism spectrum conditions (asc) and borderline personality disorder (bpd) are significantly challenged in terms of autism spectrum disorder (asd) is characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction, behavior patterns, and narrow, .

adults with asd might continue to struggle to manage their emotions. they may have sudden outbursts of anger or become withdrawn when overwhelmed. these emotional reactions, which are common in those with asd, might be seen as neuroticism, borderline personality disorder, or another mental illness. autism spectrum disorder (asd) is not a personality disorder in itself. asd is characterized by persistent difficulties in social communication it’s common for people with bpd or autism to also have anxiety disorders, depression, ocd, adhd, and eating disorders. this 2019 review found that the limbic borderline personality disorder and autism have more similarities than you may believe, but their differences are also significant. by learning, .

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