brain-imaging techniques have opened up the schizophrenic brain for direct inquiries, in terms of structure, neurochemisiry, and function. primary negative symptoms include manifestations of alogia, anhedonia, and asociality, and are seen as part of the illness complex in many persons with schizophrenia.4 whether these symptoms are generated in the central nervous system (cns) along with the process that results in the psychosis, or whether they have their own pathophysiology, is not yet known and opinions differ widely as to the answer. a risk for schizophrenia is inherited.21 twin studies have been pivotal in verifying a genetic predisposition:22,23 the more closely one is related to an individual with schizophrenia, the greater the risk of contracting the illness (table ii).the prevalence in the general population is 1 %. also notable is the observation that in any single individual with the illness, symptoms fluctuate and change over time, making it hard to invoke permanent cerebral changes in neuronal function or circuitry as the basis of these cerebral abnormalities.
several laboratories focusing on the superior temporal gyrus have reported volume decreases in schizophrenia and a correlation between the volume changes and clinical characteristics of the illness.61,62 the medial temporal cortex, including parahippocampal, entorhinal, and hippocampal cortex, is also reduced in size in schizophrenia. recent utilization of variable performance tasks have contributed to a solution here.69 rcbf studies in schizophrenia have been used to identify cns regions of abnormal function in the illness. since many of the cognitive and functional abnormalities in schizophrenia involve the frontal cortex and its functions, an alteration in these feedback systems offers strong face validity to explain certain symptoms in schizophrenia. regions of the frontal cortex project to the caudate or putamen in segregated, parallel neuronal pathways. moreover, our examination of the human hippocampus in schizophrenia using functional imaging techniques is largely consistent with this formulation of abnormal hippocampal function drawn from these animal and postmortem data.
schizophrenia is thought to be the result of a culmination of biological and environmental factors. this includes exposure to viruses or toxins in utero, premature labor, low birth weight, and lack of oxygen during birth.2 higher rates of schizophrenia are found in urban areas, among low-income families, where income inequality is significant.3 researchers have not pinpointed a single gene that leads to the development of schizophrenia; many genes are thought to play a role. the majority of people who develop the illness—over 63 percent—do not have first or second degree relatives diagnosed with the illness.4 the majority of children who later develop schizophrenia are not different in childhood than other children. instead, a person has a certain level of risk that determines whether they may or may not develop the illness.
stress and drug abuse are considered common triggers in people who are at risk, which may result in the onset of psychosis. if they did not learn adequate coping skills to handle these rapid changes and without mental health support (e.g., counseling at a college health center), this transition can be fraught with turmoil. it could also drive an individual to self-medicate with drugs or alcohol, which are also considered triggers.8 so what is happening in the mind of someone with schizophrenia that is different? longer relapses into active phase schizophrenia are associated with greater gray matter loss.12 this information is not designed to replace a physician’s independent judgment about the appropriateness or risks of a procedure for a given patient. use of this website is conditional upon your acceptance of our user agreement.
perinatal events like toxemia and hypoxia at birth are risk factors for schizophrenia, as is a winter birth. a number of factors have been proposed as being linked to schizophrenia: genetic, psychological, endocrinological, metabolic, environmental, virological, genetic changes can interact with things in your environment to boost your odds of getting schizophrenia. if you were exposed to certain viral, .
research suggests schizophrenia may be caused by a change in the level of 2 neurotransmitters: dopamine and serotonin. some studies indicate an imbalance between the 2 may be the basis of the problem. others have found a change in the body’s sensitivity to the neurotransmitters is part of the cause of schizophrenia. the gene, complement component 4 (c4), plays a well-known role in the immune system. it has now been shown to also play a key role in brain development and schizophrenia risk. the insight may allow future therapeutic strategies to be directed at the disorder’s roots, rather than just its symptoms. like pneumonia, which can be caused by various bacteria, viruses, or chemicals, schizophrenia probably has multiple causes, all of which affect the brain in schizophrenia is thought to be the result of a culmination of biological and environmental factors. while there is no known cause of although adoption studies have supported the hypothesis that genetic factors contribute to schizophrenia, they have also demonstrated that the disorder most, .
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