posttraumatic stress disorder (ptsd) is defined as a fear-based disorder with several features necessary for a formal diagnosis which include: avoidance behaviors, re-experiencing, increased arousal and negative affect and/or cognition.1 avoidance behaviors may include avoiding people, places or situations that could be emotionally ‘triggering’ of a traumatic event. negative affect or cognitions may additionally occur with ptsd which may include feeling detached, or blaming themselves for a traumatic event. whereas ptsd has the above features necessary for diagnosis, complex posttraumatic stress disorder (cptsd) is often defined as a shame-based disorder, which includes the key features of ptsd plus three additional features, including emotional dysregulation, a negative self-image and interpersonal relationship issues.3 for example, those diagnosed with cptsd may avoid relationships out of fear, have a negative self-concept, and display anger, sadness, emotional disconnection or dissociation. however, some key differences include a fear of abandonment that is specific to bpd and a more stable sense of self-identity seen in cptsd that is not seen as consistently with bpd.
if you or someone you know is struggling with symptoms relating to ptsd, cptsd or bpd, speaking with a counselor who is trained in trauma and recovery may be helpful in building skills and assisting with coping strategies. can therapy that includes drawing, painting, dance, or music help someone heal from trauma? the concept of repressed memory is controversial. thanks to neuroplasticity and therapies like emdr, it may be possible to “rewire” your brain… trauma can affect a child’s learning and classroom behavior in many ways. conventional treatments can help manage symptoms, but research suggests mdma therapy might be able to heal ptsd symptoms, as well as the condition.
multiple regression models were used to examine differences in psychopathology, traumatic events and health-related quality of life across individuals with ptsd alone (n=1820), bpd alone (n=1290) and those with comorbid ptsd-bpd (n=643). these studies have suggested comorbid rates of ptsd among individuals with bpd ranging from 25% to 58% (zanarini et al. 2002), while the second found that 34% of individuals with bpd had ptsd (swartz et al. however, one study found individuals with comorbid ptsd-bpd to be associated with physical abuse and a greater number of types of abuse (zlotnick et al. in addition, the one community study of this comorbidity found that individuals with ptsd-bpd were more likely to have fair to poor health and increased impairment in social and occupational domains relative to those with ptsd alone (connor et al. the nesarc (grant et al. the axis ii diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (grant et al. childhood traumatic events were defined to occur before the age of 16. this cutoff has been used in previous literature (connor et al.
in order to examine bpd and ptsd symptom severity, two count variables were created based on the number of bpd criteria and ptsd criteria each respondent endorsed. more individuals with ptsd were caucasian, while higher proportions of individuals with bpd and ptsd-bpd fell into the other race/ethnicity categories. individuals with ptsd and comorbid ptsd-bpd had similar levels of physical hrqol, which were significantly lower than the levels of individuals with bpd alone. individuals with comorbid ptsd-bpd were significantly more likely than those with ptsd alone and bpd alone to have experienced each of the repeated childhood traumatic event variables examined. our findings of a significantly greater number of both bpd and ptsd symptoms in the comorbid ptsd-bpd group have not been demonstrated in previous research (e.g., zlotnick et al. however, the current finding of a significantly higher prevalence of suicide attempts among individuals with comorbid ptsd-bpd relative to individuals with bpd alone has not been previously noted in the literature (rusch et al. given this association with suicide attempts and the potential for completed suicide (owens et al. in summary, results of the current study confirm that the diagnoses of ptsd and bpd are not redundant and further emphasize the clinical utility of diagnosing both disorders for a comprehensive understanding of the impact of this comorbidity on mental health functioning. red stars indicate that the group mean is significantly different from the bpd alone group mean at p<.01 and green stars indicate that the group mean is significantly different from the ptsd-bpd group mean at p<.05.
post-traumatic stress disorder (ptsd) and borderline personality disorder (bpd) commonly co-occur. between 25% and 60% of people with bpd also bpd involves a generalized under-regulation of intense distress related to real or perceived abandonment or rejection, whereas emotion bpd and ptsd occur at the same time in a large number of people. one reason for this is that experiencing traumatic events in childhood is a risk factor for, .
bpd and c-ptsd are easily confused due to the overlap in symptoms. both are characterized by general emotional distress, which can include complex ptsd, or cptsd, is a subset of ptsd. whereas ptsd is a fear-based disorder, cptsd is often referred to as a shame-based disorder difference: when the trauma is healed for a person with ptsd, the emotional reaction is minimal and subdued. however, the person with bpd is, .
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