depressive symptoms were assessed by a modified version of the center for epidemiologic studies—depression scale (ces-d) and sob was assessed by a three-item scale administered at baseline. in the duke established populations for epidemiologic studies of the elderly (epese), over one-third of subjects reported sob that required them to stop and rest (cornoni-huntley et al., 1990). in a study of 147 primary care patients, female gender, body mass index (bmi), and dsypnea were associated with depressive symptoms. we specifically asked the questions, “in a community sample of older adults, does sob predict an increase in depressive symptoms 3 years later in controlled analyses?” and “does shortness of breath interact with other risks for depressive symptoms synergistically?” these questions are important because older adults experience a number of chronic symptoms.
frequencies for each variable are presented in table 1. we constructed a scale in which we assigned a score of “1” to each of the questions if answered “no” and a score of “2” if the question was answered “yes. the frequency of current smokers is presented in table 1. the variable was entered as a dichotomous variable in the regression equations. linear regression analyses were conducted in which we examined the main effect of sob on depressive symptoms at the 3-year follow-up controlling for depression at baseline in addition to controlling for variables associated with depressive symptoms and sob listed above. the vast majority of subjects with sob do survive to the follow-up, and sob is significantly and independently associated with follow-up depressive symptoms even when baseline depressive symptoms are controlled. despite these limitations, however, we believe these results provide evidence for the importance of sob as a symptom that should be considered when evaluating older adults for risk of depressive symptoms in the future.
respiratory depression, or hypoventilation, refers to a slow, shallow breathing rate. therefore, anything that affects the function of the central nervous system, including the brain, can cause respiratory depression. without treatment, respiratory depression can cause life threatening complications and even death. respiratory depression happens when the lungs fail to exchange carbon dioxide and oxygen efficiently. the normal breathing rate of a healthy adult is 12–20 breaths per minute. respiratory depression can cause acid to build up in the body and lead to respiratory acidosis, a life threatening condition associated with organ failure. anyone who suspects respiratory depression or notices several of the typical symptoms should seek medical attention immediately. if a person is in the company of someone with these symptoms, it is vital to keep them alert and moving as much as possible.
after an initial visit, a doctor will usually order diagnostic tests to help confirm respiratory depression and evaluate its severity. if overdose is the cause of respiratory depression, detoxification will be necessary. it is not possible to prevent all cases of respiratory depression, such as those that are due to accidents or sudden disease. respiratory depression, or hypoventilation, happens when the lungs do not effectively exchange the gases oxygen and carbon dioxide. causes include medical conditions that affect the brain, such as a stroke, and medications or recreational drugs that impair the function of the central nervous system. orthopnea is shortness of breath that occurs when a person is lying down and typically subsides when they sit or stand up. it is a symptom rather than… cheyne-stoke respiration is believed to be more common during sleep. phlegm comes in many colors and can be an important indicator of what is happening when someone produces it from their lungs or respiratory tract… there are many reasons why a person might cough up phlegm without feeling sick. learn more here.
created for family members of people with alcohol abuse or drug abuse problems. answers questions about substance abuse, its symptoms, different the symptom of sob, not the actual lung function, appears to be the important correlate with depression. in yet another study (n = 20 296), copd comorbid with many people worry that a symptom affecting their breathing must come from a physical issue. in fact, your mental health affects your physical, .
introduction. dyspnea is a clinical term used to describe the subjective feeling of impaired breathing. the term comprises a wide range of respiratory symptoms when a person comes to a doctor with this symptom, they first rule out physical causes, such as breathing problems or heart problems. everyone feels anxious respiratory depression, or hypoventilation, is when the lungs do not exchange gases properly, causing a low breathing rate. learn about its causes, symptoms, .
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