the .gov means it’s official. the site is secure. the https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely. various environmental factors such as urbanicity, migration, cannabis, childhood traumas, infectious agents, obstetrical complications and psychosocial factors have been associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia. whilst some of these factors act on an individual level, others act on a populational level, modulating the individual risk. these factors can have a direct action on the development of schizophrenia, or on the other hand act as markers for directly implicated factors that have not yet been identified.
eight risk factors were selected and developed in the following paper: urbanicity (or living in an urban area), cannabis, migration (and ethnic density), obstetrical complications, seasonality of birth, infectious agents (and inflammatory responses), socio-demographic factors and childhood traumas. some factors, such as cannabis, are “unique” in their influence on the development of schizophrenia since it labels only one risk factor. discussion: the data reviewed clearly demonstrates that environmental factors have an influence on the risk of developing schizophrenia. for certain factors – cannabis, migration, urbanicity, obstetrical complications, seasonality – there is enough evidence to establish an association with the risk of schizophrenia. with the exception of cannabis, no direct link can yet be established. one main limitation concerning all environmental factors is the generalization of results due to the fact that the studies were conducted on geographically limited populations. conclusion: further research is needed to fill the gaps in our understanding of the subject.
the importance of interaction between genetic and environmental risk is, however, undoubtedly important and there is emerging evidence for this from a range of sources. the association between obstetric complications and schizophrenia appears stronger in those with an early onset of illness.12,13 since obstetric complications are thought to be associated with the neurodevelopmental abnormalities proposed to be causative for schizophrenia, their relationship with such characteristics has been of interest. a number of environmental risk factors have been proposed to act during the intermediate period between the prenatal period and life immediately prior to illness onset; these include child-rearing experiences, head injury and possibly child abuse.
while early life risk factors have lent weight to the neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia, environmental risk factors acting later in life have more often than not encouraged consideration of social and psychological mechanisms of illness causation. children born in greenland to danish mothers have been found to have rr=3.71 for schizophrenia for example.108 in the swedish city of malmö, immigrants particularly from east-africa were found to be at increased risk for first-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis compared with native-born controls.109 the impact of ethnicity and migration on rates of psychosis has further fuelled the debate about the role of social and psychological factors in the etiology of schizophrenia. low social class, a complex concept in itself, has been consistently found to be associated with schizophrenia, but the roles of social causation versus social drift have often been difficult to separate. the challenge is now further improve the precision with which environmental risks are measured, and to understand the mechanisms of their action and interrelationships.
various environmental factors such as urbanicity, migration, cannabis, childhood traumas, infectious agents, obstetrical complications and psychosocial factors some of these risk factors have been well documented, for example, early hazards causing fetal growth retardation or hypoxia, and hazards nearer the onset of environmental risk factors such as pregnancy and birth complications, childhood trauma, migration, social isolation, urbanicity, and substance, .
environmental factors that have been repeatedly investigated and often associated with sz include: obstetric complications, infections, winter or spring birth, migration, urban living, childhood adversity, and cannabis use. the exact causes of schizophrenia are unknown. research suggests a combination of physical, genetic, psychological and environmental factors can make a person more likely to develop the condition. some people may be prone to schizophrenia, and a stressful or emotional life event might trigger a psychotic episode. however, neither individual susceptibility genes nor individual environmental risk factors appear sufficient or necessary to cause schizophrenia. both genetic the search for possible environmental factors is in very early stages. one prominent theory is that schizophrenia results from altered brain development before genetic changes can interact with things in your environment to boost your odds of getting schizophrenia. if you were exposed to certain viral, .
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