further, these relations between pd factors and substance dependence diagnoses appeared to largely account for the comorbidity among substance dependence diagnoses in the younger but not older participants. however, another study found that only borderline and histrionic pds were related to the probability of having a drug use disorder among a sample referred for pd treatment (skodol, oldham, & gallaher, 1999). we predicted that although a general personality disorder factor would be significantly related to a range of substance dependence diagnoses in the population, specific personality disorder pathology would show differential patterns of relationship to substance dependence—in particular, cluster b pds to substance dependence diagnoses. a diagnosis of dependence for each substance required participants to endorse at least three of the seven dsm–iv criteria occurring in any 12-month period). from this perspective, underlying dimensions contributing to both substance dependence and axis ii disorders show stability over time, even though at times they may not present in the severity of a diagnosis. in addition to the high correlations among substance dependence diagnoses and among pd diagnoses, notable correlations between individual substance dependence diagnoses and pds were observed (see table 2).
therefore, it seems reasonable to conclude that a common factor underlying personality disorders accounts for much of the comorbidity between axis ii personality disorders and substance dependence. this suggests that a factor common to the cluster b disorders but independent of other pds is associated with substance dependence. similar to findings with alcohol dependence, specific associations between both nicotine and drug dependence and the residual cluster b pd factor were revealed. although we agree that many personality disorders seem to be characterized by a remarkable lack of insight, this explanation for the general factor we extracted seems less plausible because pd diagnoses that load highly on this general factor do not require a lack of insight, and some of the residual cluster b-substance dependence relations we observed might not be present if this factor was first partialed out of the pd scores. our results indicate that a failure to consider this general pd factor can lead to potential misunderstandings of the nature of certain pd and substance dependence comorbidities. 7before we fit the model shown in figure 2, we estimated individual paths from the residuals of individual pds to substance dependence diagnoses after controlling the effect of the general pd factor on the substance dependence diagnoses. these results suggest that much of co-occurrence between substance dependence diagnoses and individual pds is attributable to the general pd factor, but antisocial and borderline pds (both cluster b pds) uniquely predict substance dependence over and beyond the general pd factor.
a personality disorder is a type of mental disorder in which you have a rigid and unhealthy pattern of thinking, functioning and behaving. general personality disorder traits typically begin to manifest in adolescence or early adulthood. common symptoms: a long term pattern of feelings and personality disorders in general are pervasive, enduring patterns of thinking, perceiving, reacting, and relating that cause significant distress or, .
listed under general personality disorder are the specific types of personality disorders including borderline, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, schizotipal, antisocial and narcissistic. finally, there is no evidence of substance abuse or physiological explanation for the behavior u2013 such as drugs or head trauma. personality disorders (pd) are a class of mental disorders characterized by enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition, how do you know if someone has a personality disorder? their behavior is inconsistent, frustrating and confusing to loved ones and other people of a substance (e.g., a drug abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition (e.g., head trauma). the essential features of a personality disorder are, .
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