the evolution of these diseases seems to be a factor linked with social “westernization”, and examining under what conditions the symptoms first became common in different societies became a priority for recent studies over risk factor. he emphasizes the difference between the compulsive movements of epilepsy, caused by a disorder of the brain, and those of hysteria due to the abnormal movements of the uterus in the body. in his work in hippocratis librum de humoribus, galen criticizes hippocrates: “ancient physicians and philosophers have called this disease hysteria from the name of the uterus, that organ given by nature to women so that they might conceive . this was how hippocratic concepts of melancholia and hysteria spread in late-medieval europe, and in informed circles these diseases were treated according to what we shall call the “scientific” vision. “hysterical” women are subjected to exorcism: the cause of their problem is found in a demonic presence. the inquisitor finds sin in mental illness because, he says, the devil is a great expert of human nature and may interfere more effectively with a person susceptible to melancholy or hysteria. in 1563, weyer publishes de prestigiis daemonum, which is a step-by-step rebuttal of the malleus maleficarum. her explanation of classical hysteria is that the illness manifested itself in young women repressed by puritanism, and was aggravated by the intervention of puritan pastors, this leading to dramatic consequences. even more interesting is the fact that the causes and symptoms of hysteria and melancholy are linked to the humor theory.
hysteria is a pathology in which dissociation appears autonomously for neurotic reasons, and in such a way as to adversely disturb the individual’s everyday life. the father of psychoanalysis sigmund freud (1865-1939) provides a contribution that leads to the psychological theory of hysteria and the assertion of a “male hysteria”. in 20th century several studies are based on a particular presentation of hysteria’s symptoms: a loss or disturbance of function which does not conform to what is known about the anatomy and physiology of the body, as loss of speech but not of singing. hysteria was in fact a major form of neurotic illness in western societies during the 19th century and remained so up to world war ii. modern africa is characterized by a variety of different economic and social situations which are not easy to compare, but in which urbanization and the progressive loss of tribal links is a common trend. in view of the particular condition of women in these cultures, this sudden passage from a traditional female role to a more independent activity seemed to be particularly suited for a study of the relationship between personal transformation and psychopathological changes. in a characteristic manner the suffering women also differed in the attribution of the causes of their discomfort. a critical study of the historical development and the interpretations of mental diseases may contribute to providing an explanation for the means of psychopathological expression. we have seen that both the symptomatic expression of women’ malaise and the culturally specific interpretation of the same malaise witness the changing role of women.
a new phenomenologically-based classification scheme for these disorders is proposed that is more compatible with the agnostic and atheoretical approach to diagnosis of mental disorders used by the current classification system. the practice of exorcism of demons and evil spirits came to dominate as the preferred treatment for such problems around this time. fascination with magnetism is thought to have further contributed to the growing popularity of occult practices and charlatanism in the nineteenth century . freud is credited with having first introduced the concept of hysterical conversion, and he originally coined this term [29,34]. mainstream interest in spirit possession eventually faded, but major conversion and dissociative syndromes with dual multiple personalities have persisted to the present, with subsequent periodic spurts in reporting of these phenomena. conversion symptoms are embedded in the criterion symptoms of briquet’s syndrome and are commonly observed in these patients. 25–26) to characterize the psychological symptoms of briquet’s syndrome that were not included in the dsm-iii criteria for somatization disorder. in the agnostic and atheoretical approach to american psychiatric diagnosis established with dsm-iii, the grouping of conversion with somatoform phenomena emphasized the phenomenological association of physical symptom complaints.
in dsm-5, the diagnosis of depersonalization disorder was changed to “depersonalization/derealization disorder” and dissociative fugue was added as a specifier for the diagnosis of dissociative amnesia. the move to fold conversion into somatization in the american diagnostic system, according to its detractors, fell out of step with the international criteria and detracted from the understanding of these disorders [11,20,72]. further evidence presented in support of arguments for joining conversion and dissociation into a single category is the extensive comorbidity of these phenomena within the same individuals and the similarity of other features of patients with these disorders . pseudoneurological or conversion symptoms have long been included as part of diagnostic criteria for hysteria and somatization disorder, demonstrating a clear recognition of the frequent co-occurrence of these symptoms in patients with these disorders. hudziak’s group  was impressed by the similarities in the criteria for borderline personality disorder and descriptions of the characteristics of patients with briquet’s syndrome, leading them to consider the possibility that briquet’s syndrome might actually constitute a subset of borderline personality disorder. this seemingly inconsistent finding likely reflects the inclusion of psychoform symptoms in the definition of briquet’s syndrome but not in the definition of somatization disorder and is resonant with the characteristic comorbidity of symptoms of many psychiatric disorders found among patients with borderline personality disorder . a more descriptive name for symptoms and syndromes of this type might be “neuroform,” because these symptoms suggest neurological disorders that are not consistent with the patient’s symptoms. a new phenomenologically-based classification scheme for these disorders is proposed that is more compatible with the agnostic and atheoretical approach to diagnosis of mental disorders used by the current classification system.
hysteria was a victorian-era medical condition characterized by hallucinations, nervousness, and partial paralysis. today, hysteria is a hysteria is undoubtedly the first mental disorder attributable to women, accurately described in the second millennium bc, and until freud considered an savill described the syndrome as “manifested by an, hysteria symptoms, hysteria symptoms, hysteria disorder, female hysteria, types of hysteria.
conversion disorder, formerly called hysteria, a type of mental disorder in which a wide variety of sensory, motor, or psychic disturbances may occur. it is traditionally classified as one of the psychoneuroses and is not dependent upon any known organic or structural pathology. in the 19th century, hysteria was considered a diagnosable physical illness in women. it is assumed that the basis for diagnosis operated under the belief that in western medicine hysteria was considered both common and chronic among women. even though it was categorized as a disease, hysteria’s symptoms were throughout history hysteria has been a sex-selective disorder, affecting only those of us with a uterus. these uteri were often thought to be, what is hysteria, causes of hysteria, hysteria medical term, treatment of hysteria, history of hysteria, hysteria symptoms in male, hysterical neurosis, female hysteria in literature, hysteria disease in male, hysteria ppt.
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