not only do they disparage the efforts of others, but they make it a point to resist demands to perform in workplace and social settings and to frustrate people’s expectations and requests, however reasonable and minimal they may be. passive-aggressives sulk and give the “silent treatment” in reaction to real or imagined slights. inevitably, passive-aggressives are envious of the fortunate, the successful, the famous, their superiors, those in favor, and the happy.
this misconduct is often aimed at releasing tensions and stress that the individuals comprising these organizations accumulate in their daily contact with members of the public. they anticipate attacks and rebukes and are rendered defensive and suspicious by the inevitable, impending onslaught. and sometimes they follow this up by taking something like an “am i gay quiz” that might be found online.
we conclude that future research on this potentially important clinical construct should focus on core passive aggressive features and abandon the negativistic content that has been added to it in successive editions of the dsm. it is ironic that this move, which may have spared papd from the diagnostic graveyard in the dsm-iii-r and dsm-iv, may have led to its ultimate demise, as represented by indifference to the construct in most contemporary research and the dsm-5. we hypothesize that the saturation of the papd diagnosis with non-specific distress and interpersonal dysfunction that is common across pds but not particular to passive aggressive behavior contributed to this trajectory. specifically, our goal is to evaluate the impact of the negativistic content that has been added to it in the last two editions of the dsm, and to begin the process of separating this negativistic content from the papd. correlations between pds are listed in table 1. the correlation between papd and negpd was somewhat modest (.52), suggesting that the change from papd to negpd was substantial. this pattern is consistent with the hypothesis that the broadening of the passive aggressive construct to include negativistic symptoms worsened discriminant validity by saturating papd with criteria involving a general tendency to experience distress and dysfunction.
first, this pattern of weak correlations in general and negative correlations with pds may simply reflect that the existence of the inadequacy factor is mostly due to the reverse scored items on the pdq. however, it is also possible that this redefinition and the decision to place negpd in the dsm-iv appendix may have affected the lack of research on papd since the publication of dsm-iv despite the importance of passive aggressive behavior in several clinical theories. the term passive aggressive was conceived in an occupational (military) context, and many behavioral examples of and dsm criteria for passive aggression involve the failure to comply with job-related expectations. future research should explore the degree to which passive aggressive behavior depends on the context, and in particular the extent to which it generalizes from work to other situations. although there is insufficient research to recommend papd for inclusion in the diagnostic manual at this time, we believe that there is sufficient theoretical work and research to suggest that the construct is worthy of further investigation. r2 and β values are from regression models in which the four passive aggressive/negativistic scales predicted the criterion scale in the left-most column.
people diagnosed with the negativistic (passive-aggressive) personality disorder resemble narcissists in some important respects. despite the obstructive role symptoms included passive resistance to routine social or occupational tasks, complaints of being misunderstood, sullen argumentativeness, according to the apa, negativism is “an attitude characterized by persistent resistance to the suggestions of others […] or the tendency to act, .
passiveu2013aggressive personality disorder, also called negativistic personality disorder, is characterized by procrastination, covert obstructionism, inefficiency and stubbornness. the dsm-5 no longer uses this phrase or label, and it is not one of the ten listed specific personality disorders. a personality disorder whose essential features are resistance to the demands of others that is expressed indirectly under the cover of obstructionism, manifest itself as: resentment, stubbornness, procrastination, sullenness, dawdling, deliberate inefficiency, pretended forgetfulness, (s) discontented self-image (e.g., sees self as misunderstood, luckless, unappreciated, jinxed, and demeaned by others; recognizes being characteristically, .
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