smoking and schizophrenia

the series of articles in this collection aims to understand the reason for the high smoking rates amongst people with schizophrenia, as well as to explore both barriers and facilitators towards smoking cessation in this vulnerable group. performed a comprehensive systematic review of the literature on psychosocial barriers and facilitators to smoking cessation in people with schizophrenia. in a qualitative study of community mental health staff and consumers about the role of tobacco in their lives as well as the impact of these issues on smoking cessation.

assessed the uptake and impact of a smoking cessation program in young people with a psychotic illness. a collaborative international research agenda, with partnerships between bodies overseeing mental health treatment and smoking cessation, would likely add momentum to research efforts. the use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.

more recently, smoking has also been found to be associated with psychotic experiences in the general population.1–3 rates of cigarette smoking in individuals with psychotic disorders are 2–3 times greater than those without.4 moreover, tobacco smokers with psychotic disorders display patterns of heavy smoking,5 severe nicotine dependence4 and are less likely to quit than nonsmokers.6 there is an increased risk of tobacco-related morbidity and excess mortality in this population,7 constituting a major contributor to health inequalities. cigarette smoking in individuals with psychosis may be related to the type of antipsychotic.

moreover, smoking may be implicated in improving a number of neurophysiological abnormalities associated with psychotic disorders, including sensory gating deficits,53,54 pre-pulse inhibition,55 and abnormal smooth pursuit eye movement.56 the fundamental principle of the self-medication hypothesis is that psychotic individuals seek out nicotine to alleviate the symptoms associated with the illness or side effects of treatments, that is smoking is initiated upon development of the illness, or initiation of antipsychotic medication. a number of other factors, however, have relevance in terms of their relationship with both cigarette smoking and the pathoaetiology of psychosis. nevertheless, the dramatic declines in cigarette smoking seen in the general population have not been reflected in individuals with psychotic disorders,129 and there is also stark evidence that the mortality gap is widening.130 establishing smoke-free inpatient psychiatric units is a goal that hospitals and policymakers are increasingly supporting, however the impact on long-term patterns of smoking in this population remains to be elucidated.

the association between cigarette smoking and schizophrenia is well established. rates of smoking among people with schizophrenia are one of the most severe psychotic disorders is schizophrenia. it has long been acknowledged that there is a strong relationship between cigarette smoking of another substance, cannabis, also has been reported to be a risk factor for development of schizophrenia. high potency cannabis and frequent cannabis, .

there has been emerging evidence of an association between tobacco smoking and schizophrenia spectrum disorders (ssd). two meta-analyses have reported that people who smoke tobacco have an ~2-fold increased risk of incident schizophrenia or psychosis, even after adjusting for confounding factors. cigarette smoking continues to adversely affect the health of individuals with schizophrenia. both smoking and heavy nicotine dependence, given the complex schizophrenia and tobacco smoking have been strongly associated. smoking is known to harm the health of people with schizophrenia, and to negatively affect smoking is notoriously bad for one’s health. tobacco use can lead to disability, disease, and even death, but new research suggests that, .

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